久联优配古玩行2020精品推荐第3期:第一批驾驶证

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驾驶人管理制度是道路交通管理的根本制度之一,驾驶证是道路交通管理发展到一定阶段的必然产物。驾驶员的准入资格审核和考核发证,对于掌握交通发展动态以及保证交通安全等方面起了十分重要的作用。

Driver's ma久联优配nagement system is 久联优配one of the fundamental systems of road traffic management. Driver's license is the inevitable outcome of the development of road traffic management to a certain stage. The examination and certification of drivers' admission qualifications play a very important role in mastering the development of traffic and ensuring traffic safety.

20世纪初,中国汽车数量不多,汽车安全问题也不突出,然而,北京、上海等汽车较多的城市已开始探索汽车驾驶人管理制度,京师警察厅率先推出了汽车司机人久联优配执照,中国第一代汽车驾驶执照就此诞生。随着汽车数量的与日俱增,青岛、武汉、广州等地也相继制定汽车驾驶执照的申领久联优配规定,执照种类式样各不相同。

At the beginning of the 20th century久联优配, there were not many cars in China and the problem of car safety was not prominent. However, cities with more cars, such as Beijing and Shanghai, have begun to explore the management system of car drivers. Jingshi Police Office took the lead in introducing the license of car drivers, thus the first generation of car drivers in China was born. With the increasing number of automobiles, Qingdao, Wuhan, Guangzhou and other places have also formulated regulations for applying for automobile driving licenses, with different types and styles of licenses.

1932年,苏浙皖京沪五省市交通委员会成立,先后制定了《汽车驾驶人执照统一办法》等规定,实现了驾驶执照的跨省市的统一。1936年,全国公路交通委员会成立,为了便于汽车在全国范围内互通,规定了全国统一的驾驶人执照样式,并分成了普通和职业两类。

In 1932, the transportation committees of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Beijing, Shanghai and other five provinces and cities were established and successively formulated regulations such as "uniform measures for driver's license", which realized the unification of driving licenses across provinces and cities. In 1936, the National Highway Traffic Committee was established. In order to facilitate the exchange of cars across the country, it stipulated a unified driver's license model and divided it into ordinary and professional categories.

在公安部交通管理科学研究所交通警察历史馆里,收藏了一本颁发于1949年10月的汽车驾驶证,是迄今发现的“新中国成立后最早汽车驾驶证”。

In the traffic police history hall of the traffic management science research institute of the Ministry of public security, a car driver's license issued in October 1949 is collected, which is "the earliest car driver's license since the founding of new China".

该驾驶证内页“技术鉴定”栏印有驾驶简历、执照种类、技术等级评定等项目,此外还单列了“奖赏记录”“惩处记录”和“工作记录”。值得一提的是,当时只有“商号”和“机关”这两种单位选项,其中“商号”仅有奖励权而无惩罚权。

The "technical appraisal" column on the inside page of the driver's license is printed with the driving resume, license type, technical grade evaluation and other items, in addition, there are also separate "reward records", "punishment records" and "work records". It is worth mentioning that at that time there were only two kinds of unit options, namely "firm" and "organ", of which "firm" had only the right to reward but not the right to punish.

这本汽车驾驶证发证单位是辽宁省会公安局,除加盖了公安局公章外,主管员和考验员分别加盖了署名章,体现了公安机关在驾驶人考试方面的严格把关,也体现了新生政权对交通安全问题的特别重视。

The license issuing unit of this car driver's license is the Liaoning provincial capital public security bureau. in addition to the official seal of the public security bureau, the supervisor and the tester have affixed their signatures respectively, which reflects the strict control of the public security organs in driver's examination and the special attention paid by the new government to traffic safety issues.

驾驶证扉页印有“爱护车辆”“节省燃料”“谨慎驾驶”“遵守规章”4条醒目的驾驶员信条。新中国成立初期因为汽车主要服务于国防战事和国家建设,所以第一条信条的“爱护车辆”体现的是对国家和集体财物的爱护;当时,由于国内燃油资源相当匮乏,很多汽车仍然采用燃烧木炭的驱动方式,所以第二条宣传的是节省燃料而非节省油料;早期的汽车刹车性能不佳,在相当长一段时期内,“人走一尺,车跑一丈,与汽车抢路准上当”是针对行人宣传最多的交通安全标语,而面向汽车驾驶员群体宣传最多的交通安全标语就是第三条信条的“谨慎驾驶”。此外,由于当时全国统一的交通管理规章尚未成形,所以信条第四条倡导遵守的“规章”,主要是地方性的交通管理规章。

The title page of the driver's license is printed with four conspicuous driver's creed: "take good care of the vehicle", "save fuel", "drive carefully" and "abide by regulations". In the early days of the founding of new China, because automobiles were mainly used for national defense and national construction, the first creed of "caring for automobiles" reflected the care for national and collective property. At that time, due to the shortage of domestic fuel resources, many cars were still driven by burning charcoal, so the second promotion was to save fuel instead of oil. The brake performance of early cars was poor. For a long period of time, "people walk a foot, cars run ten feet, and cars rob roads to be cheated" was the most publicized traffic safety slogan for pedestrians, while the most publicized traffic safety slogan for car drivers was the "careful driving" of the third creed. In addition, since the unified traffic management regulations had not yet taken shape at that time, the "regulations" advocated by article 4 of the creed were mainly local traffic management regulations.

新中国成立后相当长一段时间内,汽车驾驶员都要有挂靠单位才能学驾驶和考证,一般由单位出钱培训人员考汽车驾驶证,开的车也是单位的公车,在违反交通规则和法纪的情况下,司机的工作机关或商号有权收回驾驶证或取消驾驶证。此外,该汽车驾驶证内页《持照须知》的第5条“持照人非在执行行车职务时,本执照并不等于通行证”,这句“否定之否定”的表述文字明确了汽车驾驶证的用途范围。

For a long period of time after the founding of New China, car drivers have to have affiliated units to learn driving and research. Generally, the units pay for training personnel to take the driving license examination. The cars they drive are also the buses of the units. In case of violation of traffic rules and laws and regulations, the driver's working organ or business has the right to take back the driving license or cancel the driving license. In addition, article 5 of the "Notice to Holders of License" on the inside page of the car driver's license "this license is not equal to a pass when the holder is not performing driving duties", and the expression "negative, negative" clearly defines the scope of use of the car driver's license.

新中国成立之初,百废待兴,驾驶人管理制度都处于崭新的摸索阶段。通过不同时期的汽车驾驶证,能窥见各时期的交通管理水平、经济发展状况和精神文明程度。随着社会的进步,驾驶证的科技含量也与时俱进,驾驶证样式从纸质手册式逐步发展成今天的塑质卡式,同时融入了高科技的防伪元素。

At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, everything had to be scrapped and the driver management system was in a brand-new exploratory stage. Through different periods of car driving license, we can get a glimpse of the traffic management level, economic development and spiritual civilization level in each period. With the progress of the society, the scientific and technological content of the driver's license also keeps pace with the times. The style of the driver's license has gradually developed from a paper manual to today's plastic card, and at the same time, high-tech anti-counterfeiting elements have been incorporated.

2019年,我国的机动车保有量已经达到3.48亿辆,机动车驾驶人达4.35亿人,严谨规范的驾驶人制度是从源头上确保道路交通安全的一剂良方,公安部门不断完善驾驶人管理制度,有着重要的现实意义。

In 2019, the number of motor vehicles in our country has reached 348 million and the number of motor vehicle drivers has reached 435 million. Strict and standardized driver system is a good way to ensure road traffic safety from the source. The public security department is constantly improving the driver management system, which has important practical significance.

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